The Common Core State Standards for mathematics define what students should understand and be able to do in their study of mathematics. For more than a decade, educators and researchers have understood the need for a more focused, more rigorous mathematics curriculum in U.S. public school systems in order to produce a generation of globally competitive individuals. To address that need, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics were developed. These standards are internationally benchmarked and are based on a philosophy of teaching and learning mathematics that is consistent with the most current research, exemplary practices, and national standards.Coupled with the mathematics curriculum are the eight Standards for Mathematical Practice. These standards describe ways in which students should engage with the subject matter as they grow in mathematical maturity and expertise throughout the elementary, middle, and high school years. An in-depth explanation of the standards can be accessed by clicking the following link:
**Standards for Mathematical Practice**
The K-5 standards provide students with a solid foundation in whole numbers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, and decimals. The standards stress not only procedural skill but also conceptual understanding to make sure that students are learning and absorbing the critical information they need to succeed at higher levels. The middle school standards provide a bridge from the elementary level to the high school level. The high school standards prepare students to think and reason mathematically, and they set a rigorous definition of college and career readiness. The high school standards emphasize mathematical modeling and the use of mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, understand them better, and improve decisions.The Middle School Common Core State Standards for Mathematics are as follows:
**SIXTH GRADE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM**
The sixth grade mathematics curriculum can be accessed by clicking the following link:
Sixth Grade Mathematics Curriculum
The focus at the sixth grade level is on connecting ratio and rate to whole number multiplication and division and using concepts of ratio and rate to solve problems; completing understanding of division of fractions and extending the notion of number to the system of rational numbers which includes negative numbers; writing, interpreting, and using expressions and equations; and developing understanding of statistical thinking. Students use reasoning about multiplication and division to solve ratio and rate problems about quantities. By viewing equivalent ratios and rates as deriving from and extending pairs of rows in the multiplication table, and by analyzing simple drawings that indicate the relative size of quantities, students connect their understanding of multiplication and division with ratios and rates. Students use the meaning of fractions, the meanings of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for dividing fractions makes sense. They extend their previous understandings of number and the ordering of numbers to the full system of rational numbers. They understand the use of variables in mathematical expressions. Students write expressions and equations that correspond to given situations, evaluate expressions, and use expressions and formulas to solve problems. Students begin to develop their ability to think statistically, recognizing that a data distribution may not have a definite center and that different ways to measure center yield different values. Students recognize that a measure of variability can also be useful for summarizing data because two very different sets of data can have the same mean and median yet be distinguished by their variability.
**SEVENTH GRADE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM**
The seventh grade mathematics curriculum can be accessed by clicking the following link:
**Seventh Grade Mathematics Curriculum**
The areas of focus at the seventh grade level are developing understanding of and applying proportional relationships; developing understanding of operations with rational numbers and working with expressions and linear equations; solving problems involving scale drawings and informal geometric constructions and working with two- and three-dimensional shapes to solve problems involving area, surface area, and volume; and drawing inferences about populations based on samples. Students extend their understanding of ratios and develop understanding of proportionality to solve single- and multi-step problems. They solve problems involving percentages and scale and graph proportional relationships. Students develop a unified understanding of number, recognizing fractions, decimals, and percents as different representations of rational numbers. They use the arithmetic of rational numbers as they formulate expressions and equations in one variable and use these equations to solve problems. Continuing their work with area from grade 6, students solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. Students build on their previous work to begin informal work with random sampling to generate data sets and learn about the importance of representative samples for drawing inferences.
**EIGHTH GRADE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM**
The eighth grade mathematics curriculum can be accessed by clicking the following link:
**Eighth Grade Mathematics Curriculum**
The areas of focus at the eighth grade level are formulating and reasoning about expressions and equations; grasping the concept of a function and using functions to describe quantitative relationships; and analyzing two- and three-dimensional space and figures using distance, angle, similarity, and congruence, and understanding and applying the Pythagorean Theorem. Students use linear equations and systems of linear equations to represent, analyze, and solve a variety of problems. They strategically choose and efficiently implement procedures to solve linear equations in one and two variables. Students grasp the concept of a function as a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. They understand that functions describe situations where one quantity determines another. Students use ideas about distance and angles to describe and analyze two-dimensional figures and to solve problems. They apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find distances between points on the coordinate plane, to find lengths, and to analyze polygons. Students complete their work on volume by solving problems involving cones, cylinders, and spheres.
**Major Work of the Grade for Mathematics**
Content Emphases by Cluster describes content emphases in the standards at the cluster level for each grade or course. These are provided because curriculum, instruction, and assessment at each grade must reflect the focus and emphasis of the standards. Not all of the content in a given grade or course is emphasized equally in the standards. Some clusters require greater emphasis than others based on the depth of the ideas, the time they take to master, and/or their importance to future mathematics or the demands of college and career readiness. An intense focus on the most critical material at each grade allows depth in learning, which is carried out through the Standards for Mathematical Practice. Assessments will be designed with a much greater proportion drawn from clusters designated as major and the remainder drawn from clusters designated as additional/supporting, with these items placing emphasis on the major work of the grade. To access documents for each grade level, click on the desired links below.
Sixth Grade
Seventh Grade
Eighth Grade |